This describes concept of dial-peer and steps to debug dial-peer.
Cisco IOS uses two types of dial-peers. They are defined as:-
Plain old telephone systems (POTS) dial peer—These define the characteristics of a traditional Telephony network connection. The POTS dial peer maps a dial string to a specific voice port on the local router/gateway. Normally, the voice port connects the router/gateway to the local public switched telephone network (PSTN), private automatic branch exchange (PBX), or telephone.
Voice-Network dial peers—These define the attributes of a packet voice network connection. Voice-Network dial peers map a dial string to a remote network device.
Different technologies used by dial peers are explained here:-
Voice over IP (VoIP) - The dial peer is mapped to the IP address, Domain Name System (DNS) name, or server-type of the destination VoIP device that terminates the call. This applies to all VoIP protocols such as H.323, SIP, and Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP).
Voice over Frame Relay (VoFR) - The dial peer is mapped to the data-link connection identifier (DLCI) of the interface from which the call exits the router.
Voice over ATM (VoATM) - The dial peer is mapped to the ATM virtual circuit for the interface from which the call exits the router.
Multimedia Mail over IP (MMoIP) - The dial peer is mapped to the e-mail address of the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server. This type of dial peer is used for Store and Forward Fax (on-ramp and off-ramp faxing).
Syntax of a pots dial-peer
dial-peer voice <tag> pots
port <port #>
<other configurable options>
tag is a numeric value that has locally significant only.
destination-pattern <number> - number needed to route a call (valid characters are 0-9, A-D, *, #, . , T).
port <port#> - voice-port where the call is sent once a destination-pattern is matched.
<Other configurable options>
application <ivr application>
Note - Pots peers strip the pattern that is match and forwards the rest.
Note:- the above 2 peers are functionally equivalent.
Wild-cards - A dot (.) is used to represent any single digit to be collected ex. 2…. Would match any extension in RTP.
T - used for variable length dialing - Gateway will continue to collect digits until the inter-digit timeout expires - can incorporate a terminating character with:‘dial-peer terminator x’ globally, where x is any DTMF tone.
Matching rules for Outbound dial-peer
For call routing, dial-peers are matched solely on destination-pattern using the following rules:-
So, if the called number is 4085271048, the order of attempts will be 3 then 2. and only 408527 will be collected by the router. Peer 1 will never be
used. If the call is an inbound ISDN call with called party=4085271048, then peer 1 will be matched.
dialpeer destpat preference session-target
1 408527104.T 1 voip1 2 408…T 0 voip2
So, if the called number is 4085271048, the order of attempts will be 1 then 2.
Matching rules for inbound VoIP peers
For peers where the call leg (VoIP) matches the dial-peer type (VoIP):
1. if the type is matched, associate the called number with the ”incoming called-number <string>”
2. else if the type is matched, associate calling-number with
3. else if the type is matched, associate calling-number with
4. else match PID=0
Answer-address: config option under a dial-peer that is used to match the ANI of the call to the <string> in the config command.
Incoming called-number: config option under a dial-peer that is used to match the DNIS of the call to the <string> in the config command.
Peer ID 0 (PID=0)
Peer ID 0 is an un-configured dial-peer used for inbound matching only. The matched inbound peer defaults to PID=0 if no other inbound peer is found based on matching criteria.PID=0 has a default configuration that cannot be changed.
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