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Allowed List Policy Considerations for SD-Access

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(Pdf copy at the bottom)

Overview

SD-Access Segmentation

Segmentation within SD-Access is enabled through the combined use of both Virtual Networks (VN), which are analogous to VRFs, and Cisco Scalable Group Tags (SGTs).  VNs, like VRFs, provide complete isolation between traffic and devices in one VN and those in other VNs.  While segmentation can be accomplished through the use of virtual networks alone, SGTs provide logical segmentation based upon group membership.  Thus, SGTs provide an additional layer of granularity, allowing you to use multiple SGTs within a single VN to provide micro-segmentation within the VN.

 

Figure 1.  Sample use of VNs and SGTsVN.png

 

Per the above diagram, traffic from groups within the IOT are completely isolated from the groups with the Corporate VNs.  However, by default, traffic between groups (SGTs) within each VN can freely communicate. For example, employees can freely communicate with the developers, the contractors, and the suppliers.   In a SD-Access fabric, micro-enforcement with SGTs, also known as Group-Based policy enforcement, is used to filter communications between SGTs.  

 

About Group-Based Policy Enforcement

 

A group-based policy consists of a source SGT, destination SGT, and a contract.  A contract may be as simple as permit/deny ip or it may be based on Layer 4 access control entries explicitly permitting/denying specific TCP/UDP ports. 

 

 Cisco DNA Center uses a matrix view to define these policies. 

 

Figure 2: Group-Based Policy Matrix (illustrative purpose only)matrix.png

The policies are deployed to ISE and then ISE updates the edge nodes with only those policies for SGTs associated with the attached devices. Enforcement occurs upon egress where the destination is attached (more detail on egress enforcement will be covered later).

 
Note: Policy cannot be defined for broadcast or multicast traffic. 

 

Policy Enforcement Models within a VN

In the world of computing and network security enforcement, there are generally two types of policy enforcement models. These are often referred to as blocked list (default allow) and allowed list (default deny). When an allowed list policy model is used all traffic is denied access, except that which is explicitly included in the allowed list policy. 

 

Whether to choose a default permit or deny policy, it largely depends on the requirement. If the requirement is to permit most traffic on the network, then there will be a smaller number of total policies required by using a default permit with explicit deny rules. Conversely, if the requirement is to deny most traffic on the network then fewer policies will be needed by using a default deny with explicit permit rules.

 

blocked list vs allowed list Policies

 

 

Blocked-list

Allowed-list

Default Action

Everything allowed

Everything is forbidden

Benefits

Specifically block-list those applications and traffic that you are concerned about.

Write access controls just for those types of traffic and applications that want to permit

Potential problems

Reactive. 

Someone needs to put the problematic item in the list. For example, if it is a virus, the IT specialist will add it to the list after detection which could be too late.

Preventative.

Prevents communications unless entries allow-list items.  It can stop work because a needed item is not on the list.

 

Blacklist

 

Let’s say that we have SGTs for employees, developers, quarantined_users and network_services. Logically, quarantined_users should be restricted from almost every group with bi-directionally defined policies. 

 

Figure 3: Group-Based Policy Matrix- Blacklistpermit.png

 

 

In this example, we can see that a blocked list policy is being used because the default policy is to Permit IP.  Because all traffic between SGTs is permitted by default, we need to add deny policies for the quarantined_users SGT and all other SGTs that have been defined.  This example uses a small number of SGTs, but in a network with hundreds (or whatever), the number of policy definitions would be large.

 

Alternatively, with an allowed list approach there would be fewer policies to define, as shown in Figure 4.

 
Figure 4: Group-Based Policy Matrix-Whitelistdeny.png

 

 

In this example, we can see that an allow-list policy is being used because the default policy is to Deny IP.  Because all traffic between SGTs is deny by default, so by default quarantined_users can’t communicate with anything.  This example uses a small number of SGTs, but in a network with hundreds (or whatever), the number of policy definitions would be large.

SD-Access Lab topology for test environment:

 

Figure 5: Test Topologytopo2.png

 

Code versions:

  DNA Center 1.3.3

  Catalyst 9K running 17.1.1+

 

Fabric Edge Device

 

As a SD-Access best practice, ISIS is the recommended protocol for underlay traffic in a SD-Access network.  However by design, SGT based enforcement blocks broadcast traffic.  Therefore, it is a MUST to disable enforcement for switch-to-switch communications (underlay) by configuring  “no cts role-based enforcement” on all switch-to-switch links.

 

 

Figure 6: Fabric Edge ConfigurationISIS.png

 

 

Note:       See Appendix for logs generated when this configuration is skipped

 

Wireless Access Point Considerations

 

Currently Cisco DNA Center enables enforcement on the AP VLAN (2045).  As a result, SGT assignment and pre-configured policies are required to allow the AP to connect when the default policy denies communication.  You will need to make configurations in two places. First on the fabric edge that the AP is connected to. Secondly, configuration of a group-based policy in Cisco DNAC to allow communications between the unknown SGT(0) and the SGT assigned to the APs as shown below.

 

Note:       Enforcement on VLAN 2045 can be disabled.  However, a re-provisioning attempt from DNA Center would simply re-enable enforcement

Note:       SGT=0 (Unknown SGT) is used here since the WLC is unclassified

 

Configuration steps:

  1. Configure a VLAN (2045) to SGT mapping via Cisco DNA Center by navigating to the Host Onboarding tab within the site provisioning flow

 

 

Figure 7: Cisco DNA Center Access Point SGT Configuration

apsgt.png

 

Or via SSH:

Edge(config)#cts role-based sgt-map vlan-list 2045 sgt 2

Note:       This command assigns the SGT=2:TrustSec_Devices as the SGT for the AP.  This SGT could be anything but for the reasons cited in the “Recommendations” section, I’ve used SGT=2. 

  1. Configure “permit ip” policies to allow Unknown-SGT to SGT=2 and vice-versa to communicate by navigating to PolicyGroup-Based Access ControlPolicies

 

Figure 8: Group-Based Policy for Access Pointap-unknown.png

 

 

Note: A contract that’s more specific can be used in place of “permit ip”.  Please reference the

“Securing Communications Further” section below for more details

Policy Extended Node Considerations

Currently Cisco DNA Center enables enforcement on VLAN chosen for policy extended node (PEN) management. However, there is not a reserved vlan id for a PEN and Cisco DNA Center does not provision a SGT to a PEN which make it difficult to create a policy to allow the PEN to initalize.  Therefore, the current workaround is to disable enforcement on the uplink that connects the PEN to the edge.

 

In the diagram below, the PEN is connected to interface g1/0/1. Configure “no cts role-based enforcement” on the interface PRIOR TO going through the PEN configuration on Cisco DNA Center.

 
Figure 9: Policy Extended Node Configurationpen.png

Allowing Communications Outside of the Fabric Considerations

 

By default, the SGT values of things outside a fabric are unknown (SGT=0).  This includes site-to-site and north-to-south communications.  Therefore, you must configure contracts to allow outside traffic (SGT=0) to any SGTs assigned within the fabric. 

 

For example, for an employee (SGT=4) to communicate with a DNS server that is hosted outside of the fabric, a contract is necessary to permit SGT 0 to SGT 4.

Note:       Using SGT=0 in a contract allows any type of communication from any unclassified device. 

 

General Guidelines for Securing Communications Further

ISE

Like other network endpoints, SDA fabric devices must be authenticated and authorized by ISE to download SGTs and group-based policies.  As part of this process, the fabric devices be assigned to an SGT.  By default, ISE configures this SGT to SGT=0 (Unknown).  This SGT is known as the “device SGT”.

 

Currently, the device SGT has no relevance in the fabric.

 

However, when considering an allow-list policy model, it is recommended to assign SGT with the value =2: TrustSec_Devices or some SGT value other than 0 to avoid the need to have a catch all policy allowing 0:Unknown to 0:Unknown communications.

 

Note:       In a future ISE release, the device SGT will be 2:TrustSec_Devices by default

Navigate to Work Center-->TrustSec-->TrustSec Policy--> Network Device Authorization and set  the default rule to assign the security group to “TrustSec_Devices”

 

Figure 10: Cisco ISE Device SGT Configuration

 

NDAC.png

 

 

Appendix

Fabric Edge Details

Commands that enable enforcement:

Edge#
cts role-based enforcement<---Enables SGT-based enforcement globally
cts role-based enforcement vlan-list 1027,1030<---Enabled SGT-based enforcement on specific VLANs

 

When a default deny is deployed:

Edge#
*Feb  6 11:27:05.572: %BFDFSM-6-BFD_SESS_DOWN: BFD-SYSLOG: BFD session ld:1 handle:1,is going Down Reason: RX DOWN
*Feb  6 11:27:05.576: %CLNS-5-ADJCHANGE: ISIS: Adjacency to Border (GigabitEthernet1/0/21) Down, bfd neighbor down

 

Edge(config)# int g1/0/21<---Uplink to next hop switch
Edge(config-if)#no cts role-based enforcement
Edge(config-if)#
*Feb  6 11:30:50.997: %BFDFSM-6-BFD_SESS_UP: BFD-SYSLOG: BFD session ld:1 handle:1 is going UP
*Feb  6 11:30:51.006: %CLNS-5-ADJCHANGE: ISIS: Adjacency to Border (GigabitEthernet1/0/21) Up, new adjacency

 

 

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