let me help you out here with a simple check to run for future as well in order to avoid any confusion.
1- SFPs on both the sides are recommended to be of same type, not necessarily of same OEM
for example if switch has an SFP-10G-SR, then the server must have an equivalent SFP for connectivity.
2- SFPs must be decided first from the server side, Why ? if you miss the FCoE parameter while selecting an SFP, you will face issue if you chose the models which did not support FCoE.
3- Match and decide the type of connector going to be used with the SFP, If you are using a Dual LC connector SFP at one side then for sure you need to get the Dual LC connector. People often make mistake of ordering a selection of SFPs based on the word LC mentioned and then fall into trouble once the order is arrived due to the mismatch of switch and server side inventory.
Part-2 Fiber Cables
1- Decide which Fiber optic cable type is going to be connected between the switch and the servers.
For example if you have chosen a dual LC connector type SFP for the design, then you will need to order the dual lc fiber cable to support your connectivity.
2- Decide the mode & type of fiber optic to be used. MMF or SMF only does not finalize the compatibility for the overall connectivity.
For example you ordered SFP-10G-SR to connect between the switch and the server but the distance between your both ends is greater than 80 meters, you may have to order OM3 or OM4 MMF cable otherwise if mistakenly you ordered lower than OM3 or decided to use any other cable from your existing inventory which might be an OM2, you would be in trouble.
For detailed compatibility matrix against each Cisco SFP you may check out Cisco Transceiver Compatibility matrix.
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FCoE is Fiber Channel over ethernet, this is used when you want to traverse the combination of LAN and SAN traffic over your layer 2 connectivity. If you select mismatched SFPs in this case you would not be able to traverse the SAN traffic whereas LAN traffic would work.
Implementing FCoE is a strategic design decision which not only combines the two different traffic types but also saves the cable bulk which is separately required for SAN (Storage) connectivity.
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No I mean like every sfp has a Receiver and Transmitter Optical Characteristics which are measured by wavelength. And I'm wondering if they have to match or not like for example the below cisco sfp
should these characteristics match with the server sfp optical characteristics as well?
In your example table, the 10GBASE-SX identifies the specification that the SFP meets. The 10G = 10 Gigabit speed, the SX identifies the link reach (short). Thus, if you use two 10GBASE-SX compatible transceivers on the ends of the link, then you don't need to worry bout the wavelength and optical characteristics. There are different transceiver specifications to support the various length fiber links (-LX, -ZX, etc) that cover most applications. These different specifications may use different fiber types and Tx/Rx characteristics to meet the link and speed lengths.