The FTP client, convert the hostname (bsdi) into its 32-bit IP address. This function is called a resolver in the DNS (Domain Name System), This conversion is done using the DNS.
The FTP client asks its TCP to establish a connection with that IP address.
TCP sends a connection request to the remote host by sending a packet to its IP address.
If the destination host is on a locally attached network, the frame can be sent directly to that host. If the destination host is on a remote network, the IP routing function determines the Internet address of a locally attached next-hop router to send the packet to. In either case the data is sent to a host or router on a locally attached network.
Assuming an Ethernet, the sending host must convert the 32-bit IP address into a 48-bit Ethernet address. A translation is required from the ip to mac l. This is the function of ARP.
ARP is intended for broadcast networks where many hosts or routers are connected to a single network.
ARP sends an Ethernet frame called an ARP request to every host on the network. This is called a broadcast. . The ARP request contains the IP address of the destination host (whose name is bsdi) and is the request if you are owner of the request , respond to me with your hardware address.
The destination host's ARP layer receives this broadcast, recognizes that the sender is asking for its hardware address, and replies with an ARP reply.This reply contains the IP address and the corresponding hardware address.
The ARP reply is received and the packet that forced the ARP request-reply to be exchanged can now be sent.
The Packet is sent to the destination host.
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