Not exactly sure of the context you are asking from but there are several ways - query the device using SNMP to report on state and statistics of the interface, setup the device to generate SNMP traps in the event of state change, monitor and act on syslog messages generated by the device. Those are just the most common of several ways.
I take it you want to verify confirmed end-end reachability of both sides of an Ethernet connection from the router itself. The usual approach is to use an external tools that looks at each end's characteristics and makes a conclusion based on that.
If you want something closer to the absolute truth then IP SLA and tunnel monitoring are good ones. Depending on the platform you may be able to use something like mediatrace as well. You can also leverage embedded event manager (EEM) to give you some insight.
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