Based on the Transmit and Receive specifications (from data sheet - below):
Tx Max = 0.5dBm
Rx Max = 0.5dBm
Any fiber length (= loss) between the transmit side and the receive side will guarantee the optical power at the receiver input will never be greater than the receiver's max input (Rx Max). So a short distance link will work using the SFP-10G-BXD-I to SFP-10G-BXU-I (need to be used in pairs).