MPLS defines protocol that make different paradigm for a way routers forward packets. rather than forwarding packets based on the packets destination IP address, MPLS defines how router can forward packets based on MPLS label.
host 10.1.1.1 generates and send an unlabeled packet destined to host 188.8.131.52.
router 1, with no MPLS feature configured, forwards the unlabeled packet based on the destination IP address, traditional IP routing, without any labels.
MPLS router e receives the unlabeled packet and decides, as part of the MPLS forwarding process to impose(push) a new label (value 20) into the packet and forwards the packet to router 3.
MPLS router 3 revives the labeled packet. router 3 swaps the label for new label value (30) and then forward the packet to router 4.
MPLS router receives the labeled packet, removes (pops) the label, and forwards the packet toward router 5
non-MPLS router 5 forward the unlabeled packet based on the destination IP address, as normal .
Traditional IP routing
Routing protocol are used to distribute layer routing information. A forwarding decision is made based on:
Local routing table
Routing lookup are independently perform at every hop
Basic MPLS features
MPLS is a forwarding mechanism in which packets are forwarded based on labels. MPLS packets can run other layer 2 technology such as ATM,Fame relay .PPP, Ethernet. MPLS leverage both IP routing and CEF switching.
LSR (label switch router) any router that push label onto packet, pops label from packet, or simple forwards labeled packet. in other wards LSR forward packets based on labels and swap labels.
Edge LSP (E-LSR) Edge LSR in the MPLS network process bothlabeled andunlabeled
Labels IP packets (Imposes labels) and forwarded them into MPLS domain
Forwards IP packets out of the MPLS domain
A sequence of labels to reach a destination is called an lSP.
Benefits of MPLS
MPLS support multiple applications including:
Uncast and multicast IP routing
MPLS decrease forwarding overhead on core routers.
BGP free core
MPLS can support forwarding of non-IP protocol
MPLS uses a 32-bit label header that is inserted between l2 & l3 of OSI
3-bit experiment field
1-bit bottom of stuck indicator
8-bit time to live field
A single label corresponds to single route and shares them with MPLS neighbor (using LDP protocol)
MPLS label stack
Usually only one labels is assigned to a packet, but multiple labels in a label stack are supported.
These scenarios may produce more than one label:
MPLS VPN (two labels):
The top points to the egress routers, and the second label identifies the vpn.
MPLSTE (two or more labels):
The top label points to the endpoint of the traffic engineering tunnel and the second label point to the point destination.
Hi,I am hitting another issue with an ACL that doesn't make much sense. I've got Router A: An ASR 920 that has 2 BDI configured on it. One has a public network configured and serves as default gateway for the UNI on the router. The other has a private IP ...
Hi everyone,I have problem with my setup which is ridiculously easy but still cannot fix it. So, the plan goes like this:Isp router - - > 2960 switch (L2) - - > 9 access pointsI have connected the ethernet line from isp router to fa0/1 and all the a...
Now I have a new issue... I have a configured Cisco Firepower 1010 with an S2S Tunnel to an ASA 5515x (IKEv2). Traffic is flowing fine to the ASA5515. However, we also have tunnels to the remote sites and they connect IKEv1 to the ASA5515. I hav...
Hello: I bought a cisco switch and all 48 ports are moved to vlan 702. I have internet from another 3750 port with DHCP. Now, I have internet from all the port but I cannot ping each devices from the switch. I can ping the vlan 1 SVI interface IP fro...