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SD-WAN and NAT Types

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Meddane
Rising star

In a typical production SD-WAN deployment, we would probably have many remote sites connected via many different Internet connections to a centralized data center or a regional hub. In most regions in the world, Internet providers will always use some type of private-public address translation due to a shortage of public IPv4 addresses. According to the STUN protocol, there are many NAT Types:
Full-Cone NAT
Restricted-Cone NAT
Port-Restricted-Cone NAT
Symmetric NAT

Although Cisco SD-WAN supports several types of Network Address Translations, to create a full mesh overlay fabric, at least one side of the WAN Edge tunnels is recommended to be able to initiate a connection inbound to the second WAN Edge. This means that at least one side of the tunnel is recommended to have a public IP address or to be behind a Full-Cone (1-to-1). It is also strongly recommended to configure full-cone, or one-to-one address translation at the data centers or regional hub sites so that, regardless of what NAT type is running at the remote sites (restricted-cone, port-restricted cone, or symmetric ), they can send traffic to the hubs without issues.